August 11, 2010

Hae Mo-su of Buyeo

Hae Mosu was the founder and 1st Dangun of Buyeo. He is mentioned in the Hwandan Gogi, and Korean records of the 11th and 13th centuries that describe the founding of Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo considered itself a successor to Buyeo and annexed Buyeo remnants in 494.


Hae Mosu was a member of the Gojoseon Imperial family of Jinjoseon under the dynasty that was founded by the 44th ruler of Gojoseon, Emperor Gumul of Gojoseon. He rose up as a general at the young age of 23 under the rule of Emperor Goyeolga of Gojoseon, and served the empire faithfully during its period of decay.

Rise to Power

Gojoseon, which had been divided into three separate kingdoms, was falling. Jinjoseon, the central state and former seat of power, was decaying to the point that the military no longer followed the orders of the Emperor and acted on its own. Seeing that he was no longer in control of the empire, Emperor Goyeolga of Gojoseon abdicated and left the empire in the hands of the Ohga, who were the Five Central Nobles. Under the Ohga, the generals and leaders of the military began to leave and rise in rebellion. The last to leave the empire was Hae Mosu, who had become general at the young age of 23. Hae Mosu left the Empire in order to rebuild it and not for his own personal gain. Hae Mosu and his battalion went to Jangdanggyeong fortress, where they built a palace. From there, Hae Mosu took the title of Cheonhwang-Rang, which was a title equivalent to emperor. Hae Mosu destroyed most of the rebellions of his fellow Gojoseon generals, and regained most of Jinjoseon's territories. With this, Cheonhwang-Rang Hae Mosu offered the Five Central Nobles a chance to rebuild Gojoseon under the name of Bukbuyeo. After establishing the state of Bukbuyeo, Hae Mosu waited six years just in case the former emperor Goyeolga would return. When it became clear that the former emperor would not return to politics, Hae Mosu was given the title of Dangun.


Hae Mosu is stated in Samguk Sagi to have been the father of Hae Buru and King Dongmyeong. These records and the legends involving the three figures conflicted and lacked common sense. Recent studies by historians have solved the puzzle to the Buyeo royal line.

Connection with Hae Buru

Hae Buru was the younger brother of Go Uru, who was the 4th Dangun of Buyeo. When Go Uru died in 86 BCE, his brother Hae Buru took the throne and became Dangun of Bukbuyeo. However, during that same year, Go Dumak, a descendant of Goyeolga of Gojoseon, arose and rebelled against Hae Buru, taking the throne and pushing Hae Buru to the east. Hae Buru led his followers and some of Bukbuyeo's people to the city of Gaseopwon, a city near the present-day Sea of Japan (East Sea). In that same year, Hae Buru founded another Buyeo, which he named Dongbuyeo, due to its position east of Bukbuyeo. In order to avoid conflict with Dongmyeong Dangun, who had come to rule over Bukbuyeo, Hae Buru submitted himself to Dongmyeong Dangun as a vassal of Bukbuyeo, and therefore used the title of "Wang," which means "King."

Connection with Go Jumong

Go Jumong was the son of Hae Mosu, also known as Buliji, who was the ruler of Okjeo. Buliji was the grandson of King Go Jin, who was the second son of Hae Mosu. Go Mosu met Yuhwa, the daughter of Habaek, who was the chieftain of a tribe that lived by the water. Go Mosu married Yuhwa, but died in battle before he could see their child, Jumong, born. Go Jumong eventually grew up in Dongbuyeo, and escaped Dongbuyeo to escape the princes of Dongbuyeo and their jealous rage. After crossing the border and entering Bukbuyeo, Go Jumong was greeted by Go Museo Dangun, who was the sixth ruler of Buyeo. Go Museo dangun decided to marry Jumong to his second daughter Soseuno. When Go Museo died with no sons, Jumong rose to the throne to become the seventh dangun of Bukbuyeo. He eventually conquered many neighboring kingdoms and tribes and established Goguryeo in 37 BCE.


According to the Samguk Sagi, Hae Mosu was the father of Goguryeo's founder, Jumong. According to the Samguk Yusa, Hae Mosu was the son of heaven, riding in a chariot of five dragons, arriving at Holsenggolseong in 58 BC to establish Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo). His son is the founder of Goguryeo, Dongmyeongseong. It is also said that Haemosu was an excellent archer and skilled fighter who conquered many foes of his kingdom, Bukbuyeo.

However, Haemosu does not appear in older Chinese records or on the Gwanggaeto Stele that describe Goguryeo's founding. It is thought that Goguryeo integrated the founding legend of Buyeo after the former conquered the latter.


Hae Mosu Dangun died of age in the year 195 BCE.

sumber: Wikipedia

Names of Korea

There are various names of Korea in use today, derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name Korea is an exonym derived from the Goryeo period and is used by both North Korea and South Korea in international contexts. In the Korean language, the two Koreas use different terms to refer to the nominally unified nation: Chosŏn (조선) in North Korea and Hanguk (한국) in South Korea.

There are various names of Korea in use today, derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name Korea is an exonym derived from the Goryeo period and is used by both North Korea and South Korea in international contexts. In the Korean language, the two Koreas use different terms to refer to the nominally unified nation: Chosŏn (조선) in North Korea and Hanguk (한국) in South Korea.


The earliest records of Korean history are written in Chinese characters. Even after the invention of hangul, Koreans generally recorded native Korean names with hanja, by translation of meaning, transliteration of sound, or even combinations of the two. Furthermore, the pronunciations of the same character are somewhat different in Korean and the various Chinese dialects (and Japanese and Vietnamese), and have changed over time.

For all these reasons, in addition to the sparse and sometimes contradictory written records, it is often difficult to determine the original meanings or pronunciations of ancient names.



At least 5,000 years ago, northern Korea and Manchuria were controlled by Gojoseon. In Chinese records, it was written as 朝鮮, which is pronounced in modern Korean as Joseon (조선). Go (古), meaning "ancient", distinguishes it from the later Joseon Dynasty.

The Chinese characters phonetically transcribed a native Korean name, thought to have been then pronounced something like "Jyusin". Some speculate that it also corresponds to Chinese references to 肅愼 (숙신, suksin), 稷愼 (직신, jiksin) and 息愼 (식신, siksin)[citation needed], although these latter names probably describe the ancestors of the Jurchen.

Other scholars believe 朝鮮 was a translation of the native Korean Asadal (아사달), the capital of Gojoseon: asa being a hypothetical Altaic root word for "morning", and dal meaning "mountain", a common ending for Goguryeo place names.

The character 朝 means both "dynasty" (read as cháo in Chinese) and "morning" (read as zhāo in Chinese), while 鮮 may translate to "fresh" or "savory", often used to describe rarity. In modern Mandarin Chinese, 朝鮮 is read as Cháoxiǎn. The first character is read as cháo, as when it is used to mean "dynasty" rather than "morning", and the second character is read as xiǎn with a falling-rising contour tone,[dubious – discuss] which is a special reading of this character that is used only when pronouncing the name of Cháoxiǎn (Joseon). This may suggest a phonetic transcription, although it is unknown how the characters were pronounced at the time of recording.


Around the time of Gojoseon's fall, various chiefdoms in southern Korea grouped into confederacies, collectively called the Samhan (삼한, "Three Han"). Han is a native Korean root for "leader" or "great", as in maripgan ("king", archaic), hanabi ("grandfather", archaic), and Hanbat ("Great Field", archaic name for Daejon). It may be related to the Mongol/Turkic title Khan.

Han was transliterated in Chinese records as 韓 (한, han), 幹 (간, gan), 刊 (간, gan), 干 (간, gan), or 漢 (한, han), but is unrelated to the Chinese people and states also called Han (with a different tone.) (See: Transliteration into Chinese characters).


Around the beginning of the Common Era, remnants of the fallen Gojoseon were re-united and expanded by the kingdom of Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. It, too, was a native Korean word, probably pronounced something like "Guri", transcribed with various Chinese characters: 高句麗, 高勾麗, or 高駒麗 (고구려, Goguryeo), 高麗 (고려, Goryeo), 高離 (고리, Gori), or 句麗 (구려, Guryeo). In 高駒麗, the character 高 ("high") is an adjective, rather than a part of the transliteration. The character 麗 is sometimes pronounced ri.

The source native name is thought to be either Guru (구루, walled city) or Gauri (가우리, "center"; cf. Middle Korean *gaβɔndɔy and Standard Modern Korean gaunde 가운데).

The theory that Goguryeo referenced the founder's surname has been largely discredited (the royal surname changed from Hae to Go long after the state's founding).

Revival of the names

In the south, the Samhan resolved into the kingdoms of Baekje and Silla, constituting, with Goguryeo, the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In 668, Silla unified the three kingdoms, and reigned as Unified Silla until 935.

The succeeding dynasty called itself Goryeo (고려, 高麗), in reference to Goguryeo. Through the Silk Road trade routes, Muslim merchants brought knowledge about Silla and Goryeo to India and the Middle East. Goryeo was transliterated into Italian as "Cauli", the name Marco Polo used when mentioning the country in his Travels, derived from the Mandarin Chinese form Gāolí. From "Cauli" eventually came the English names "Corea" and the now standard "Korea" (see English usage below).

In 1392, a new dynasty established by a military coup revived the name Joseon (조선, 朝鮮). The Chinese characters were often translated into English as "morning calm", and Korea's English nickname became "The Land of the Morning Calm"; however, this interpretation is not often used in the Korean language, and is more familiar to Koreans as a back-translation from English. This nickname was coined by Percival Lowell in his book, "Choson, the Land of the Morning Calm," published in 1885.

In 1897, the nation was renamed Daehan Jeguk (대한제국, 大韓帝國, literally, "Great Han Empire", known in English as Korean Empire). Han may have been selected in reference to the ancient Samhan tribes who occupied the southern area of the Korean peninsula.

20th century

When Korea came under Japanese rule in 1910, the name reverted to Joseon (officially, the Japanese pronunciation Chōsen). During this period, many different groups outside of Korea fought for independence, the most notable being the Daehan Minguk Imsi Jeongbu (대한민국 임시정부, 大韓民國臨時政府), literally the "Provisional government of the Great Han people's nation", known in English as the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea (民國 = 民 ‘people’ + 國 state/nation’ = ‘republic’ in East Asian languages).

Korea became independent with the Japanese surrender to the Allies in World War II (1945). The country was then divided into the Soviet-occupied North and American-occupied South.

In 1948, the South adopted the provisional government's name of Daehan Minguk (대한민국, 大韓民國; see above), known in English as the Republic of Korea. Meanwhile, the North became the Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk (조선 민주주의 인민공화국, 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國) literally the "Joseon Democratic People's Republic", known in English as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.


East Asia


Today, South Koreans use Hanguk to refer to just South Korea or Korea as a whole, Namhan (남한, 南韓; "South Han") for South Korea, and Bukhan (북한, 北韓; "North Han") for North Korea. South Korea less formally refers to North Korea as Ibuk (이북, 以北; "The North"). In addition the official name for the Republic of Korea in the Korean language is "Dae Han Minguk" (대한민국; "The Republic of Korea").

North Koreans use Chosŏn, Namjosŏn (남조선, 南朝鮮; "South Chosŏn"), and Bukchosŏn (북조선, 北朝鮮; "North Chosŏn") respectively. The term Bukchosŏn, however, is rarely ever used in the north.

In the tourist regions in North Korea and the official meetings between South Korea and North Korea, Namcheuk (남측, 南側) and Bukcheuk (북측, 北側), or "Northern Side" and "Southern Side", are used instead of Namhan and Bukhan.

The Korean language is called Hangugeo (한국어, 韓國語) or Hangugmal (한국말) in the South and Chosŏnmal (조선말) or Chosŏnŏ (조선어, 朝鮮語) in the North. The Korean script is called hangeul (한글) in South Korea and Chosŏn'gŭl (조선글) in North Korea. The Korean Peninsula is called Hanbando (한반도, 韓半島) in the South and Chosŏn Pando (조선반도, 朝鮮半島) in the North.

Chinese-speaking areas

In Chinese-speaking areas such as mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan, the Korean Peninsula is usually called Cháoxiǎn Bàndǎo (simplified Chinese: 朝鲜半岛; traditional Chinese: 朝鮮半島), but it is also less often called Hán Bàndǎo in Hanyu Pinyin (simplified Chinese: 韩半岛; traditional Chinese: 韓半島).

Until establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Korea, the People's Republic of China tended to use the historic Korean name Cháoxiǎn (朝鲜 "Joseon"), by referring to South Korea as Nán Cháoxiǎn (南朝鲜 "South Joseon"). Since then, China has used the names that each of the two sides prefer, by referring to North Korea as Cháoxiǎn and to South Korea as Hánguó (韩国 "Hanguk"). The Korean language can be referred to as either Cháoxiǎnyǔ (朝鲜语) or Hánguóyǔ (韩国语), although many people argue that the former is more correct, as China itself has a sizable minority of ethnic Koreans (朝鲜族 Cháoxiǎnzú) who use the historic name.

Taiwan, on the other hand, uses the South Korean names, referring to North Korean as Běihán (北韓 "North Han") and South Korean as Nánhán (南韓 "South Han"). The Republic of China previously maintained diplomatic relations with South Korea, but has never had relations with North Korea. As a result, in the past, Hánguó (韓國) had been used to refer to the whole Korea, and Taiwanese textbooks treated Korea as a unified nation (like mainland China). The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China under the Democratic Progressive Party Government now considers North and South Koreas two separate countries. However, general usage in Taiwan still refer to North Korean as Běihán (北韓 "North Han[guk]") and South Korean as Nánhán (南韓 "South Han[guk]") while use of Cháoxiǎn (朝鮮) is generally limited to ancient Korea. The Korean language is usually referred to as Hánguóyǔ (韓國語) or Hányǔ (韓語).

Similarly, general usage in Hong Kong and Macau have traditionally referred to North Korea as Bak Hon (北韓 "North Han") and South Korea as Nam Hon (南韓 "South Han"). Under influence from official usage, which is itself influenced by official usage by the People's Republic of China government, the mainland practice of naming the two Koreas differently has become more common.

In the Chinese language used in Singapore and Malaysia, North Korea is usually called Cháoxiǎn (朝鲜 "Chosŏn") with Běi Cháoxiǎn (北朝鲜 "North Chosŏn") and Běihán (北韩 "North Han") less often used, while South Korea is usually called Hánguó (韩国 "Hanguk") with Nánhán (南韩 "South Han[guk]") and Nán Cháoxiǎn (南朝鲜 "South Chosŏn") less often used.

The above usage pattern does not apply for Korea-derived words. For example, Korean ginseng is commonly called Gāolì shēn (高丽參).


In Japan, the name preferred by each of the two sides for itself is used, so that North Korea is called Kita-Chōsen (北朝鮮; "North Chosŏn") and South Korea Kankoku (韓国 "Hanguk").

However, North Koreans claim the name Kita-Chōsen is derogatory, as it only refers to the northern part of Korean Peninsula, whereas the government claims the sovereignty over its whole territory.[6] Pro-North people such as Chongryon use the name Kyōwakoku (共和国; "the Republic") instead, but the ambiguous name is not popular among others. In 1972 Chongryon campaigned to get the Japanese media to stop referring to North Korea as Kita-Chōsen. This effort was not successful, but as a compromise most media companies agreed to refer to the nation with its full official title at least once in every article, thus they used the lengthy Kita-Chōsen (Chōsen Minshu-shugi Jinmin Kyōwakoku) (北朝鮮(朝鮮民主主義人民共和国) "North Chosŏn (The People's Democratic Republic of Chosŏn)"). From January 2003, this policy started to be abandoned by most newspapers and TV stations, on the basis that other nations with naming issues such as South Korea (ROK) and Taiwan (ROC) are not necessarily referred to by their official names.

For Korea in general, Chōsen (朝鮮; "Joseon") is mostly used.Some South Koreans, however, think the word is reminiscent either of the Japanese occupation period, or pro-North political views (or both). Consequently, there is a trend to use the transcription of English Korea (コリア, Koria) and Korean (コリアン, Korian or コリア人, Koria-jin) in print media, devoid of any political connotations.

The Korean language is most frequently referred to in Japan as Kankokugo (韓国語) or Chōsengo (朝鮮語). While academia mostly prefers Chōsengo, Kankokugo became more and more common in non-academic fields, thanks to the economic and cultural presence of South Korea. The language is also referred to as various terms, such as "Kankokuchōsengo" (韓国朝鮮語), "Chōsen-Kankokugo" (朝鮮・韓国語), "Kankokugo (Chōsengo)" (韓国語(朝鮮語)), etc. Some people refer to the language as Koriago (コリア語; "Korean Language"). These term is not used in ordinary Japanese, but was selected as a compromise to placate both nations in a euphemistic process called kotobagari. Likewise, when NHK broadcasts a language instruction program for Korean, the language is referred to as hangurugo (ハングル語; "hangul language"); although it's technically incorrect since hangul itself is a writing system, not a language.[9] Some argue that even Hangurugo is not completely neutral, since North Korea calls the letter Chosŏn'gŭl, not hangul. Urimaru (ウリマル), a direct transcription of uri mal (우리 말, "our language") is sometimes used by Korean residents in Japan, as well as by KBS World Radio. This term, however, may not be suitable to ethnic Japanese whose "our language" is not necessarily Korean.

In Japan, those who moved to Japan before and after the annexation of the Korean Peninsula usually maintain their distinctive cultural heritages (such as the Baekje-towns or Goguryeo-villages). Ethnic Korean residents of Japan have been collectively called Zainichi Chōsenjin (在日朝鮮人 "Joseon People in Japan"), regardless of nationality. However, for the same reason as above, the euphemism Zainichi Korian (在日コリアン; "Koreans in Japan") is increasingly used today. Zainichi (在日; "In Japan") itself is also often used colloquially. People with North Korean nationality are called Zainichi Chōsenjin, while those with South Korean nationality, sometimes including recent newcomers, are called Zainichi Kankokujin (在日韓国人 "Hanguk People in Japan").


Mongols have their own word for Korea: Солонгос (Solongos). The etymology of Solongos is believed to be the Solon tribe living in Manchuria, a tribe culturally and ethnically related to the Korean people. Solon is perhaps better remembered by the Mongols due to the second wife Khulan of Genghis Khan having Solon ancestry. North and South Korea are, accordingly, Хойд Солонгос (Hojd Solongos) and Өмнөд Солонгос (Ömnöd Solongos).
Other theory:
The name of either Silla or its capital Seora-beol was also widely used throughout Northeast Asia as the ethnonym for the people of Silla, appearing [...] as Sogol or Solho in the language of the medieval Jurchens and their later descendants, the Manchus respectively. Silla


In Vietnam, people call North Korea Triều Tiên ("Chosŏn") and South Korea Hàn Quốc ("Hanguk"). Prior to unification, North Vietnam used Bắc Triều Tiên (Bukchosŏn) and Nam Triều Tiên (Namjosŏn) while South Vietnam used Bắc Hàn (Bukhan) and Nam Hàn (Namhan) for North and South Korea, respectively. After unification, the northern Vietnamese terminology persisted until the 1990s. When South Korea reestablished diplomatic relations with Vietnam in 1993, it requested that Vietnam use the name that it uses for itself, and Hàn Quốc gradually replaced Nam Triều Tiên in usage.


English usage

Both South and North Korea use the name "Korea" when referring to their countries in English.

As with other European languages, English historically had a variety of names for Korea derived from Marco Polo's rendering of Goryeo, "Cauli" (see Revival of the names above).These included Caule, Core, Cory, Caoli, and Corai as well as two spellings that survived into the 19th century, Corea and Korea.(The modern spelling, "Korea", first appeared in late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.)

"Breaking the occupation spell: Some Koreans see putdown in letter change in name." Boston Globe. 18 September 2003. Retrieved 5 July 2008. Both major English-speaking governments of the time (ie the United States and the United Kingdom and its Empire) used both "Korea" and "Corea" until the early part of the Japanese occupation."English books and maps published through the 19th century generally spelled the country's name as Corea, as did the British government in laying the cornerstone of its embassy in Seoul in 1890 with the name "Corea". However, US minister and consul general to Korea, Horace Newton Allen, used "Korea" in his works published on the country.At the official Korean exhibit at the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago in 1893 a sign was posted by the Korean Commissioner saying of his country's name that "'Korea' and 'Corea' are both correct, but the former is preferred."[13] This may have had something to do with Allen's influence, as he was heavily involved in the planning and participation of the Korean exhibit at Chicago.

A shift can also be seen in Korea itself, where postage stamps issued in 1884 used the name "Corean Post" in English, but those from 1885 and thereafter used "Korea" or "Korean Post".

sumber: wikipedia

Gojoseon - an ancient Korean kingdom

According to the Samguk Yusa and other medieval-era records,Gojoseon is founded in 2333 BC by Dangun, who is said to be a Posterity of Heaven. It was centered in the basins of Liao and Northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Archaeological evidence of Gojoseon are found in the transition from the Jeulmun pottery to the Mumun pottery around 1500 BC, when groups of semi-sedentary small-scale agriculturalists occupied most of the Korean Peninsula. Local bronze production began around the 8th century BC. Based on contemporaneous written records, modern historians generally believe it developed from a loose federation into a powerful kingdom between 7th and 4th centuries BC. Go(고, 古), meaning "ancient," distinguishes it from the later Joseon Dynasty; Joseon, as it is called in contemporaneous writings, is also romanized as Chosŏn. People The people of Gojoseon were Altaic-speaking tribes that settled in Manchuria, far eastern China, and the Korean Peninsula, and are regarded as the first direct Korean ancestral line recorded in writing.The people of Gojoseon were recorded in several Chinese texts as one of the Dongyi, meaning "eastern barbarians." [edit] Location Initially, the capital of Gojoseon was probably located in Liaoning; but around 400 BC, this was moved to nearby Pyongyang, the capital of modern North Korea. Founding legend Heaven Lake of Baekdu Mountain, where Dangun's father is said to have descended from heaven Dangun Wanggeom is the legendary founder of Korea. The oldest existing record of this founding myth appears in the Samguk Yusa, a 13th-century collection of legends and stories. A similar account is found in Jewang Ungi. The Lord of Heaven Hwanin (환인, 桓因, a name which also appears in Indian Buddhist texts), had a son Hwanung who yearned to live on the earth among the people. Hwanin relented, and Hwanung descended to Mount Taebaek with 3,000 helpers, where he founded a city he named Sinsi (신시, 神市, "City of God" or "Holy City"). Along with his ministers of clouds, rain, and wind, he instituted laws and moral codes and taught the people various arts, medicine, and agriculture. A tiger and a bear living in a cave prayed to Hwanung that they may become human. Upon hearing their prayers, Hwanung gave them 20 cloves of garlic and a bundle of mugwort, instructing them to eat only this sacred food and remain out of the sunlight for 100 days. The tiger shortly gave up and left the cave, but the bear remained and after 21 days was transformed into a woman. The bear-woman (Ungnyeo, 웅녀, 熊女) was very grateful and made offerings to Hwanung. She lacked a husband, however, and soon became sad and prayed beneath a Sindansu (신단수, 神檀樹, "Divine Betula") tree to be blessed with a child. Hwanung, moved by her prayers, took her for his wife and soon she gave birth to a son, Dangun Wanggeom (단군 왕검, 檀君王儉). Gojoseon is said to have been established in 2333 BC, based on the description of the Dongguk Tonggam (1485). The date differs among historical sources, although all of them put it during the mythical Yao's reign (traditional dates: 2357 BC – 2256 BC). Samguk Yusa says Dangun ascended to the throne in the 50th year of the legendary Yao's reign, Sejong Sillok says the first year, and Dongguk Tonggam says the 25th year.Some historians suggested that Gojoseon was founded around 3000BC State formation Gojoseon is first found in contemporaneous historical records of early 7th century BC, as located around Bohai Bay and trading with Qi (齊) of China. Some historians argue that "Dangun" may have been the title of Gojoseon's early leaders. The legitimacy of the Dangun seems to have been derived from the divine lineage of Hwanin,a religious characteristic found in other ancient

fortified city-states, such as those of Ancient Greece. The Gyuwon Sahwa (1675) mentions a lineage of 47 Dangun rulers in Gojoseon, ruling from 2333 BC to around 1128 BC. But the authenticity of these books is disputed as the Hwandan Gogi.

By the 4th century BC, other states with defined political structures developed in the areas of the earlier Bronze Age "walled-town states"; Gojoseon was the most advanced of them in the peninsular region.The city-state expanded by incorporating other neighboring city-states by alliance or military conquest. Thus, a vast confederation of political entities between the Taedong and Liao rivers was formed. As Gojoseon evolved, so did the title and function of the leader, who came to be designated as "king" (Han), in the tradition of the Zhou Dynasty, around the same time as the Yan (燕) leader.Records of that time mention the hostility between the feudal state in Northern China and the "confederated" kingdom of Gojoseon, and notably, a plan to attack the Yan beyond the Liao River frontier. The confrontation led to the decline and eventual downfall of Gojoseon, described in Yan records as "arrogant" and "cruel". But the ancient kingdom also appears as a prosperous Bronze Age civilization, with a complex social structure, including a class of horse-riding warriors who contributed to the development of Gojoseon, particularly the northern expansion into most of the Liaotung basin.

Around 300 BC, Gojoseon lost significant western territory after a war with the Yan state, but this indicates Gojoseon was already a large enough state that could wage war against Yan and survive the loss of 2000 li (800 kilometers) of territory.Gojoseon is thought to have relocated its capital to the Pyongyang region around this time.

Gija Controversy

According to some Chinese records, Gija Joseon is the kingdom founded by Chinese descendants led by Gija. Whether Gija Joseon actually existed is a matter of controversy. Korean scholars deny its existence for various reasons. These scholars point to the book entitled Chu-shu chi-nien (竹書紀年) and Confucian Analects (論語), which were among the first works to mention Gija, but do not mention his migration to Gojoseon. Detractors of the Gija Joseon theory also point out that the cultural artifacts found in the region do not appear to have Chinese origins. An example of such an artifact is found in a Gojoseon mandolin-shaped bronze dagger. Its shape and bronze composition are different from similar artifacts found in China.

According to the school of historians who believe that Gija Joseon coexisted with Gojoseon of Dangun, Gija Joseon was established at the west end of Gojoseon, which is currently around Hebei, Liaoning and southern east of Inner Mongolia, and was later overthrown by Wiman. Thus Emperor Wu of Han’s conquest of Wiman Joseon was in the western part of Gojoseon, formerly ruled by Gija and his descendants.

The records of Gija refer to laws (Beomgeum Paljo, 범금팔조, 犯禁八條) that evidence a hierarchical society and legal protection of private property.

Wiman Joseon and fall

In 195 BC, King Jun appointed a refugee from Yan, Wiman. Wiman later rebelled in 193 BC, and Jun fled to southern Korean Peninsula. Wiman Joseon was influenced by the Chinese, but was not a Chinese fiefdom. In 109 BC, Wudi of China invaded near the Liao River. Gojoseon fell after over a year of war in 108 BC. It is posited that after this China established the Four Commanderies of Han in the western part of Gojoseon.

The Gojoseon disintegrated by 1st century BC as it gradually lost the control of its former fiefs. As Gojoseon lost control of its confederacy, many smaller states sprang from its former territory, such as Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye. Goguryeo and Baekje evolved from Buyeo.


Around 2000 BC, a new pottery culture of painted and chiseled design is found. These people practiced agriculture in a settled communal life, probably organized into familial clans. Rectangular huts and increasingly larger dolmen burial sites are found throughout the peninsula. Bronze daggers and mirrors have been excavated, and there is archaeological evidence of small walled-town states in this period.[Dolmens and bronze daggers found in the area are uniquely Korean and can't be found in China.

Mumun pottery

In the Mumun Pottery Period (1500–300 BC), plain coarse pottery replaced earlier comb-pattern wares, possibly as a result of the influence of new populations migrating to Korea from Manchuria and Siberia. This type of pottery typically has thicker walls and displays a wider variety of shapes, indicating improvements in kiln technology.This period is sometimes called the Korean bronze age, but bronze artifacts are relatively rare and regionalized until the 7th century BC.

Rice cultivation

Sometime around 1200 to 900 BC, rice cultivation spread to Korea from China and Manchuria. The people also farmed native grains such as millet and barley, and domesticated livestock.

Bronze tools

The beginning of the Bronze Age on the peninsula is usually said to be 1000 BC, but estimates range from the 15th to 8th centuries BC. Although the Korean Bronze Age culture derives from the Liaoning and Manchuria, it exhibits unique typology and styles, especially in ritual objects.

By the 7th century BC, a Bronze Age material culture, with influences from northeastern China as well as Siberia and Scythian bronze styles, flourishes on the peninsula. Korean bronzes contain a higher percentage of zinc than those of the neighboring bronze cultures. Bronze artifacts, found most frequently in burial sites, consist mainly of swords, spears, daggers, small bells, and mirrors decorated with geometric patterns.

Gojoseon's development seems linked to the adoption of bronze technology. Its singularity finds its most notable expression in the idiosyncratic type of bronze swords, or mandolin-shaped daggers (비파형동검, 琵琶形銅劍). The mandolin-shape dagger is found in the regions of Liaoning, Manchuria down to the Korean peninsula. It suggest the existence of Gojoseon dominions, at least in the area shown on the map. Remarkably, the shape of the "mandolin" dagger of Gojoseon differs significantly from the sword artifacts found in China. Dolmen tombs Around 900 BC, burial practices become more elaborate, a reflection of increasing social stratification. Goindol, the Dolmen tombs in Korea and Manchuria, formed of upright stones supporting a horizontal slab, are more numerous in Korea than in other parts of East Asia. Other new forms of burial are stone cists (underground burial chambers lined with stone) and earthenware jar coffins. The bronze objects, pottery, and jade ornaments recovered from dolmens and stone cists indicate that such tombs were reserved for the elite class. Around the 6th century BC, burnished red wares, made of a fine iron-rich clay and characterized by a smooth, lustrous surface, appear in dolmen tombs, as well as in domestic bowls and cups. Iron culture Around this time, Jin-guk occupied the southern part of the Korean peninsula. Very little is known about this state, except it was the apparent predecessor to the Samhan confederacies. Around 300 BC, iron technology was introduced into Korea from China. Iron was produced locally in the southern part of the peninsula by the second century BC. According to Chinese accounts, iron from the lower Nakdong River valley in the southeast, was valued throughout the peninsula and Japan. Proto-Three Kingdoms Numerous small states and confederations arose from the remnants of Gojoseon, including Goguryeo, Buyeo, JeonJoseon, Okjeo, and Dongye. Three of the Chinese commanderies fell to local resistance within a few decades, but the last, Lelang, remained an important commercial and cultural outpost until it was destroyed by the expanding Goguryeo in 313. King Jun of Gojoseon is said to have fled to the state of Jin in southern Korean peninsula. Jin developed into the Samhan confederacies, the beginnings of Baekje and Silla, continuing to absorb migration from the north. Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla gradually grew into the Three Kingdoms of Korea that dominated the entire peninsula by around the 4th century.

Sumber: Wikipedia

August 10, 2010

Dae Jangeum

Kisahnya berlangsung di Korea pada masa Dinasti Joseon, pemerintahan Raja Seongjong, Raja Yeonsan-gun (1494-1506) dan Raja Jungjong (1506-1544). Kisahnya dimulai dengan ibunda dari Yeonsan-gun yang masih muda yang diracuni oleh sekelompok pengawal istana di bawah perintah raja.

Setelah peristiwa itu, seorang pengawal istana, Seo Cheon-su, yang menyertai kelompok itu, pulang ke rumahnya, namun ia mengalami kecelakaan dalam perjalanan kembalinya. Ia diselamatkan oleh seorang pertapa Taois, yang mengatakan kepadanya bahwa hidupnya akan berlangsung di sekitar tiga orang perempuan, bahwa ia akan menyelamatkan perempuan yang kedua tetapi juga menyebabkan kematiannya, dan perempuan ketiga, yang akhirnya akan menyebabkan kematiannya, tetapi juga akan menyelamatkan banyak nyawa. (Baru belakangan sekali akan jelas bahwa ketiga perempuan itu adalah, masing-masing, ibunda Yeonsangun, ibunda Jang-geum, dan akhirnya Jang-geum sendiri.)

Tekanan batin akibat peristiwa ini akhirnya menyebabkan Seo Cheon-su mengundurkan diri. Di pihak lain, Dayang-Istana Park, seseorang yang sedang belajar di dapur istana, menyaksikan komplotan terhadap ibu suri yang dilakukan oleh Dayang-Istana Choi dan pada gilirannya dikenai tuduhan-tuduhan palsu oleh kalangan dalam staf dapur senior, dan diam-diam diperintahkan dibunuh melalui prosedur internal mereka. Ia diselamatkan oleh Dayang-Istana Han, teman baiknya di istana, dan belakangan dengan tidak sengaja diselamatkan oleh Seo yang kini sudah pensiuin. Keduanya pergi untuk hidup dengan rahasia di sebuah desa terpencil, dan menyamar sebagai petani kecil. Mereka menikah dan membesarkan seorang anak perempuan yang sangat cerdas, Seo Jang-geum.

Pada 1504, Yeonsanggun memerintahkan penyelidikan besar-besaran tentang kematian ibunya, dan akhirnya menemukan Seo dan keluarganya, sebagian karena kesalahan di pihak anaknya, Jang-geum. Seo ditangkap dan dapat diduga bahwa kemudian dihukum mati. Jang-geum dan ibunya melarikan diri, namun ibunda Jang-geum terluka parah oleh musuh-musuhnya, dan sebelum meninggal dunia ia menyampaikan kepada Jang-geum pesannya yang terakhir. Katanya, apabila ia mau, ia menginginkan Jang-geum menjadi juru masak kepala di dapur kerajaan dan mencatat kasusnya dalam buku catatan sejarah rahasia kaum perempuan di dapur (dengan maksud membalaskan kesalahan yang dilakukan kepadanya, demi kehormatannya).

Jang-geum mengalami sejumlah petualangan dan berhasil masuk ke istana. Melalui keberaniannya, rasa ingin tahu, bakat, kebaikan, dan kerja kerasnya, ia menolong Dayang-Istana Han (sahabat baik ibunya, yang baru belakangan sekali ia ketahui) untuk menjadi juru masa kepala di istana. Pada masa ia berada di istana, ia mengalami banyak penderitaan dan dijauhi orang karena ia lebih pandai daripada para pekerja magang lainnya. Namun Jang-geum tidak patah semangat dan terus memasak dengan pikiran apapun yang terjadi, tujuannya memasak adalah demi kesehatan dan kebahagiaan orang yang menikmati masakannya. malangnya, sebuah permufakatan yang dipimpin oleh Dayang-Istana Choi, kemenakannya Geum-yeong, serta para pejabat tinggi dan pedagang yang ingin tetap memonopoli pasar barng impor mengakibatkan Dayang-Istana Han dan Jang-geum dibuang ke Pulau Jeju.

Hubungan sejarah

Dae Jang-Geum adalah orang sungguhan yang dicatat dalam Babad Dinasti Joseon, serta dokumen medis dari masa itu. Namun, deskripsi dan rujukan tentang dia sangat sedikit dan singkat. Banyak yang menyatakan bahwa Dae Jang-geum adalah perempuan pertama yang menjadi dokter istana yang melayani raja dalam Sejarah Korea. Namun, ada pula (sampai sekarang) yang tetap percaya bahwa Dae Jang-Geum semata-mata adalah tokoh fiksi yang diambil dari berbagai rujukan kepada dokter-dokter perempuan di dalam Babad itu. Untuk keterangan lebih lengkap tentang dokumen sejarahnya, lihatlah entri untuk Seo Jang Geum.

Jang-geum, menurut buku Babad Dinasti Joseon serta dokumen medis dari abad ke-16, adalah satu-satunya wanita tabib kerajaan dalam sejarah Korea. Namun, deskripsi dan rujukan tentang dia sangat sedikit dan singkat. Ada pula (sampai sekarang) yang tetap percaya bahwa Jang-geum semata-mata adalah tokoh fiksi yang diambil dari berbagai rujukan kepada dokter-dokter perempuan di dalam Babad tersebut.

Aku sudah nonton serial ini sampai 7 kali....senyumnya Jang-eum (atau bahkan Lee Young-Ae yang berbakat) jadi pengen banget rasanya bisa tersenyum sama seperti dia. sejak menonton ini aku jadi tertarik banget sama sejarah korea yang penuh ini bener2 banyak yang bisa diambil pelajaran n mengharukan tapi tidak cengeng...